Dynamics are symbols written under the staff which indicate how loud or soft music is to be played.
Figure 1: Dynamic symbols indicating a different loudness for each bar.
The following is a list of different dynamic symbols:
|Sforzando||Loud and accented with accent mark|
|Sforzato||Loud and accented with legato|
|Rinforzando||Several notes or a short phrase are to be emphasized|
Hairpin are arrow shaped symbols which indicate the gradual increasing or decreasing of dynamic. There are two types of hairpins: crescendo and diminuendo.
Figure 2: A crescendo placed under two bars of music.
Figure 3: A diminuendo from forte to pianissimo.